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National insurance

Earnings thresholds and contribution percentages for Class 1 (employed), Class 2 and 4 (self-employed) and Class 3 (voluntary) national insurance contributions.

Class 1

Employees start paying Class 1 NIC from age 16 (if sufficient earnings).

Employers pay Class 1 NIC in accordance with the table below.

Employer NIC for employees under the age of 21 and apprentices under the age of 25 is reduced from the normal rate to 0% up to the Upper Secondary Threshold of £967 per week. Also applies to veterans in the first 12 months of employment.

Employees Class 1 NIC stop when they reach their 'State Pension age'. The employer's contribution continues.

Employees

2024/25:

Earnings per week %
Up to £242 Nil
£242.01 - £967 8
Over £967 2

Entitlement to state pension and other 'contribution-based benefits' is retained for earnings between £123 and £242 per week.

2023/24:

Earnings per week From 6/1/24 (%) To 5/1/24 (%)
Up to £242 Nil Nil
£242.01 - £967 10 12
Over £967 2 2

Entitlement to state pension and other 'contribution-based benefits' is retained for earnings between £123 and £242 per week.

Employers

2024/25:

Earnings per week %
Up to £175 Nil
Over £175 13.80

2023/24:

Earnings per week %
Up to £175 Nil
Over £175 13.80

Other National Insurance payable by employers

Class 1A

13.8% on broadly all taxable benefits provided to employees and on certain taxable termination and sporting testimonial payments in excess of £30,000.

Class 1B

13.8% on taxable PAYE Settlement Agreements.

Class 2 and 4 (self-employed)

A self-employed person starts paying Class 2 and Class 4 NIC from 16 or over (if sufficient profits).

Class 2 NIC stop when a person reaches State Pension age.

From 6 April 2024, there is no longer a requirement to pay Class 2. Voluntary contributions can still be made.

Class 4 NIC stop from the start of the tax year after the one in which the person reaches State Pension age.

2024/25:

Class 2 (£)
Flat rate per week 3.45
Small Profits Threshold (per year) 6,725
Lower Profits Limit n/a

A self-employed person with profits below the Small Profits Threshold might decide to carry on paying Class 2 voluntarily to accrue entitlement to the State Pension and other benefits.

2023/24:

Class 2 (£)
Flat rate per week 3.45
Small Profits Threshold (per year) 6,725
Lower Profits Limit 12,570

For 2023/24 the point at which the self-employed person starts to pay Class 2 NICs is £12,570. This means those with profits between the Small Profits Threshold and the Lower Profits Limit will not pay Class 2 NICs, but will still be able to access entitlement to contributory benefits. A self-employed person with profits below the Small Profits Threshold might decide to carry on paying Class 2 voluntarily to accrue entitlement to the State Pension and other benefits.

Class 4

2024/25:

Annual profits %
Up to £12,570 Nil
£12,570.01 - £50,270 6
Over £50,270 2

2023/24:

Annual profits %
Up to £11,908 Nil
£11,908.01 - £50,270 9
Over £50,270 2

Class 3

A person needs 35 years (30 years if State Pension age is before 6 April 2016) of NIC to get a full State Pension.

Class 3 voluntary contributions can be paid to fill or avoid gaps in a NI record.

Flat rate per week: £17.45